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Agricultural Census of the Year 1916 in the Territory of the Chelyabinsk Province

Agricultural Census of the Year 1916 in the Territory of the Chelyabinsk Province

In 1916, on the territory of Russian Empire, the All-Russian Agricultural Census was conducted according to a common plan and under the leadership of the State Executive Commission. Subsequently, the results of the census were reflected in “Statistical compendium of the Chelyabinsk province for 1920-1923” issued by the Chelyabinsk provincial Bureau of Statistics in 1923.


The agricultural census of 1916 was conducted in the period of the most complex social situation because of participation of Russia in the First World War. Objectively, its coverage was rather incomplete. Nevertheless, the census appeared to be of great importance.

In the introductory note to the compendium the editor of publication, the Head of the Chelyabinsk Province Bureau of Statistics K.I. Klimenko writes: “The compendium material is of great economic interest characterizing on one side the oriental part of the province as a powerful multi-sowing and multi-cattle  one, producing and extensive agricultural district with the promising grounds for extraction industry cultivating agricultural products with the mass distribution of local and transit Asian agricultural and stock-raising goods excess”.

Households of peasant type, private ones and other households of non-peasant type on each census territory were highlighted in census blanks of 1916. Bonded households (farms)(present and absentee), foreign ones (owned by refugees or civil captives), men and women including absentee ones, able-bodied and in the working age, number of peasant households, households with hired for the defined period workers (men and women in working age as well as absentee men and women in total), number of field households (with industrialists of both genders) possessing cattle as well as without any cattle, draught cattle, cows and so on were taken into account of total number of households (farms). In addition, landless households including with crops (in dessiatins)(land measure equivalent to 2.7 acres) with no crops were also highlighted.

Landownership has been registered according to the following sections: homesteads, cultivated fields, hayfields, forests, scrubs, pastures of suitable and useless lands in total and other unascertained lands. Number of inventory has been highlighted according to types including for soil preparation, cultivation and so on. There were households with no agricultural inventory (including improved one) also highlighted. In accordance with the territorial approach to render the information on census results were highlighted consuming and producing districts. Chelyabinsk Province was also referred to the producing district.

Agricultural Census has covered the following sheadings of the Chelyabinsk Province: Chelyabinsky, Kurgansky, Troitsky, Verhneuralsky. According to that census rural population was composed of 1mln. 96.5 thousands of people and the number pf present households was 212.3 thousands, including the sheadings:

Verhneuralsky – 25.8 thousands,

Kurgansky – 58.7 thousands,

Troitsky – 42.6 thousands,

Chelyabinsky – 85.1 thousand.

Sown area was 1 mln. 569.6 thousands of dessiatins (1 dessiatina = 1,09 ha), including  905.4 thousands of dessiatins were sown with wheat(including in Verhneuralsky shading – 156.0 thousands of dessiatins, Kurgansky – 217.8 thousands of dessiatins, Troitsky – 173.4 thousands of dessiatins, Chelyabinsky – 358.2 thousands of dessiatins). Rye sowings area was 30.7 thousands of dessiatins. The largest share went toward Kurgansky (17.1 thousands of dessiatins) and Chelyabinsky (8.0 thousands of dessiatins) shadings. On the second position of cultivated crops has been taken by oats (546.6 thousands of dessiatins).

Area of cultivated linen was18.6 thousands of dessiatins, barly area – 11.7 thousands of dessiatins. Potato fields area was18.9 thousands of dessiatins (in Verhneuralsky sheading  – 4.7 thousands of dessiatins, Kurgansky – 3.3 thousands of dessiatins, Troitsky – 3.0 thousands of dessiatins, Chelyabinsky – 7.9 thousands of dessiatins).

According to Agricultural Census one household possessed 7.4 dessiatins of crops. That was the highest indicator in the group of producing areas (for example, in Ufimsk Province one household possessed 4.7 dessiatins, Orenburg Province – 6.4 dessiatins, Perm Province – 3.4 dessiatins, Kursk and Tula Provinces – a little bit more than 4 dessiatins).

Cattle status was high enough. Total number of great cattle for the moment of census was 1 mln. 54 thousands of cattle heads, horses – 662.6 thousands of heads, sheep – 115.1 thousands of heads, goats – 57.3 thousands of heads, pigs – 255.3 thousands of heads.  The average peasant household possessed 3 horses, 5 great cattle heads including 2 cows, 6 sheep, one pig. According to this indicator the Chelyabinsk Province is second only to the Orenburg Province.

Results of the Agricultural Census conducted in the territory of the Russian Empire in 1916 had highly practical value in consequence of apportion of the most of received materials throughout the administrative territories. This allowed getting the comparative data in spite of the changes of the Chelyabinsk Province administrative boundaries in future.


Т. 265-51-91